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  • Corina Ray Bogart

The Good, the Bad, and the Post-Modern: A Hegelian Approach to Biocentricity

Humankind’s modern estrangement to the natural world emphasizes the truth that nothing is independent, and nothing is passive. Alongside the numerous negative consequences by reason of humanity’s blossoming anthropocentrism lies a welling of positive implications that are apparent in the shifting of the collective psyche’s myth into a creative junction of masculine and feminine elements.





The void births shape and form, words and thoughts evolving and coalescing into a concept of reality. The human perspective is mainly dependent on the cyclic relationship between the patterning of nature and the construction of language. Nature produces the material basis for reality that in turn, humans filter through habitual thought and labeling (Wehr 8-9). The association between language and reality is a reciprocal relationship, two processes happening simultaneously; as the lens of language conditions nature, nature constructs language and thus constructs the reality of the human being. “Form and meaning cannot be separated,” stated Beedham in his philosophical publication Language and Meaning: The Structural Creation of Reality (18). The natural world has been altered primarily due to a shift within the collective human perspective. Ancient philosophies of reverence for the Earth and natural processes gave rise to humankind’s amendment in values to a utilitarian manner of perceiving the world rooted in the concerns of human comfort and economic prosperity. The process of increasing estrangement from nature stems from the alteration of language revering the feminine qualities of the natural world to that of idolizing domineering vocabulary of masculine ascendency. It is through the Hegelian method of evolution that natural systems may be understood, how the landscape is altered, and the psyche of humanity transformed. Nevertheless, nature responds like the Colorado River carving transcendent beauty into the landscape, pushing against humanity’s dams until they too give way to the course of Earth’s processes. Humankind’s modern estrangement to the natural world emphasizes the truth that nothing is independent, and nothing is passive. Alongside the numerous negative consequences by reason of humanity’s blossoming anthropocentrism lies a welling of positive implications that are apparent in the shifting of the collective psyche’s myth into a creative junction of masculine and feminine elements. Language is a crucial component to the formation of human reality; the manner in which words, sentences, and ideas are fashioned together has a profound influence on the human psyche. Story provides a sense of place, understanding, and existential fulfillment for the human being, whereas a coyote requires no mythology to effectuate a deeply gratifying existence in communion with the universe. Over the course of human history, the story has taken many twists and turns, developed, and morphed. As the modality society uses to relate and interact with the natural world transformed in the context of a collective mythology, the progression transformed nature itself. Civilization was birthed in the verdant and fertile river valleys of Mesopotamia where culture reflected the veneration of the feminine life-giving qualities of the Earth through mythology and sacred naming of the land. According to the literary scholar Joseph Campbell, a series of invasions brought about mythological alterations through the dissolution of the defeated tribes’ most esteemed deities. In the Babylonian Creation Epic, the powerful and masculine god Marduk dissected the body of the previously dominant Mother Goddess Tiamat to create the Earth and the sky. Tiamat already represented the entire universe (Campbell 165-173); thus Marduk’s disassembly of the Mother Goddess delineates humanity’s developing anthropocentric inclination to alter nature with the intention of creating something deemed of higher value. Inevitably, the substitution of male for female archetypes creates an altered psychology within the human psyche (Campbell 173) that transcends the human being, bleeding into the entire biotic system. Deviation from a harmonious life with nature to that of human domination gained momentum during the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the rise of industrialization while obtaining its apex during the high-modernist era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Wehr 11-14). French Enlightenment philosophers deduced that because the human perceives the material world through the senses, then the sensory Bogart 2

organs must be the “organs of truth”, and due to the motivating nature of sensual satisfaction, “the advancement of man's material happiness is the proper end that government and society should serve” (Marcuse 342). Seduced by the apparent solidity of the senses, the Enlightenment congealed the notion that logical reasoning and empirical facts could rule the world and advance the material happiness that government and society should serve. Rationalist and empiricist philosophy cultivated a perspective of anthropocentrism, erecting the individual as the center of the universe with god-like attributes. The French Revolution strengthened the Enlightenment’s philosophy by setting a standard of rationalization; time, weight, measurement, government, and culture were all quantified and modernized (Wehr 12). Animals were but instinctual machines, the soul was alienated from physicality, and the world was demystified. In a demystified world, it is a metaphysical belief for the human being to utilize its environment as a tool for their benefit without regard for the environment or nonhuman life. The collective psyche’s gendered imbalances are physically reflected in natural discord resulting from the myriad of dominating human activities such as the of damming rivers, clear-cutting forests, increased urbanization, exploitive mining, mass extinctions, and an endless host of pollutants released into waterways, the land, and atmosphere. Anthropocentric high-modernist ideology demonstrated in the rhetoric and actions of the American government generated the suitable medium for nature’s disharmony to burgeon. Together, the modern state and society developed a method of perceiving nature as inherently in need of augmentation to actualize humanity’s survival, prosperity, and life fulfillment. The collective belief system influenced the actions of the government, creating a synergistic cycle of infrastructure development with complete disregard for prolonged ecological impacts. According to modernist ideals, growth is predicted on resource and land availability rendering the system completely unsustainable. The process is best described as Bogart 3

a spacial fix acquiescing capital solely reliant on overcoming environmental barriers. High- modernist discourse vindicates the extraction and ownership of a feminized natural world, resulting in justification for the state to erect economic and political infrastructure to accommodate the expansion and proliferation of growth (Wehr 14-15). The synergistic cycle of society and the state influencing one another to continuously impose industrialization of the natural world is readily expressed in America’s relationship to the arid west through large-scale hydrological development, resulting in the alteration of wilderness and the human psyche in a host of unintended consequences. Amidst the wave of minors and pioneers clamoring for their stake of water in the Promised Land of the American West, the Latter Day Saints led by Brigham Young in 1844 also made the progression from New England westward. Their mission was to establish a Kingdom of Zion, an empire born from the inhospitable desert and transformed into a fertile and verdant Garden of Eden. Mormon sights were willfully set upon reclaiming the seemingly wasted land, engineering a creation reminiscent to the creation of God’s. They were enacting their mythological role of the magnificent conqueror as they traipsed across the formidable topography of the west before settling along the Great Salt Lake’s shores in what is now Utah (Davis 31-41). In 1902, six years after Utah became a state, the U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation became established and promptly set out on the quest of dominating the arid western lands through a series of dams, canals, and large-scale irrigation projects, turning natural resources into additional national capital (Davis 41; Wehr 3). Managed in early years primarily by Mormons and directed by Mormon laws and principles, the Bureau of Reclamation used high-modernist ideological discourse to pursue the ultimate vision of transcending nature and greening the desert for ultimate societal opulence. Bogart 4

The formidable and hegemonic power of high modernist discourse fabricated a perspective of untamable and chaotic natural systems that must be subdued by the virtuous human if society is to be prosperous and progress into their divine potential. Commissioner of Reclamation Arthur Powell Davis proclaimed in 1924 that America needed to convert rivers from being a “natural menace to a natural resource” (qtd. Wehr 16). The language commonly used to describe female attributes such as, “nurturing” and “supportive” contrasted with “fickle” and “unreliable,” was utilized in patriarchal state rhetoric to engender the river. The discourse fueled the impetus of ascendancy over nature, resulting in the nearly complete development of western rivers. All contestation was absorbed until the 1960’s to further the aim of industrialization along the treadmill of progress that ultimately leads to catastrophic consequences. The erection of Boulder Dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River indicated the dawning of a new realm of power and control for the federal government while simultaneously defining society’s relationship with nature. Supporters of the dam employed imperialistic discourse containing elements of ascendency implemented through the control of nature, population, and the economy while lacking any reverence for the inherent scenic or aesthetic value of the river itself. The river was to be harnessed, fashioned into an irrigation and drinking water machine, slaking the thirst of America’s industrial lust. As expressed in a statement presented to the Secretary of Interior Hubert Work: The need is now apparent for a major step forward in the development of the Colorado River and in its transformation from an instrumentality conveying grave menace of destruction of life and property to one of much greater usefulness than now effected (qtd. Wehr 54). The state’s discourse displays the firm stance in favor of human intervention to facilitate society’s wellbeing while portraying the river’s nature as an entity of ruination. Bogart 5

Boulder Dam, the monolithic 726-foot symbol of humanity’s might over nature, completed construction in 1936, becoming a physical artifact of high-modernist discourse. The state lead dialogue continued to be relentless, repeating the thematic of land reclamation, flood control, hydroelectric power, national abundance, and high efficiency through the practical application of science and technology to expand its linear progression of state building. The solution was to dam the mighty Columbia. Deemed a natural menace congruent to that of the feminized Colorado, the dialog evolved to include a portrait of nature not only being an unruly adversary in need of taming but an active force of its own, beckoning society to utilize the river’s nurturing qualities for personal ambitions and gain. The shift from portraying nature solely as a capricious force for human domination to one of multifaceted qualities is apparent in a 1936 statement published by the Bureau of Reclamation: The last time the Columbia River was pushed around was about 10,000 years ago in the ice age when glaciers descended over the continent and diverted the Columbia at about the same point. Taking advantage of this start of the work nature made a hundred centuries past, man is now harnessing the torrent to make it serve for power generation and irrigation purposes (qtd. Wehr 141). Nature is rendered a wild feminine calling upon the masculine power of humanity to subdue and fashion her into beneficial use. “We must interfere with nature in order to give her a chance to serve us,” stated Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes in a 1935 article published in the New York Times (qtd. Wehr 144). Reminiscent of the previous discourses, arguments in favor of damming the Columbia illustrates society’s increasing disassociation with their natural selves. The wellbeing of the land and its inhabitants were not considered; society only cared about the interests of society. Although there was contestation concerning what type of dam was to be constructed in the Columbia River’s coulee, the imperial state remained victorious by Bogart 6

hegemonically absorbing oppositional convictions; the language implemented by the state and dam proponents was powerful enough to persuade various anti-dam groups. They ultimately abandoned their beliefs and supported the state-sponsored proposal in order to receive their share of the dam benefits. Native Americans sacrificed their land and homes in hopes of acquiring promised water and hydropower rights, farmers who faced competition due to the expansion of farmland gave in to the dam’s construction for cheap hydropower, and labor unions desperately needed employment (Wehr 147). Even artists of the time surrendered to the power of high-modernism for a quick dollar as is expressed in the state- sponsored song by Woodie Guthrie: “Roll along Columbia, You can ramble to the sea. But River, while you’re rambling, You can do some work for me!” Devoid of empathy for the impact on salmon migrations, the flooding of priceless ancient archaeological sites, and human values the prodigious construction dammed the coulee. Although unintended consequences in the form of water salination and severe silting were apparent, unhindered momentum of the imperialist American machine set sights for complete development of the upper Colorado. However, environmental ethic generated in response to the great loss of naturalist John Muir’s fight against Yosemite National Park’s Hetch Hetchy damming infiltrated the dialectic as a powerful wave of contestation to the proposed construction of Glen Canyon Dam. For the first time in the Bureau of Reclamation’s unopposed tyranny over nature, the entity altered its justification for industrial progress when faced with the Sierra Club’s effective opposition. Attempting to co-opt the outcry for the aesthetic preservation of Glen Canyon, the Bureau reflected society’s insatiable hunger for spiritual fulfillment through the ostensible improvement of Bogart 7

landscape aesthetics and the recreational accessibility human interference would provide. “You have a front row seat in an amphitheater of infinity... There is peace. And a oneness with the world and God,” fabricated Commissioner of Reclamation Floyd Dominy concerning the creation of artificial Lake Powell (qtd. Wehr, 184). Although Glen Canyon was immensely contested, the event ultimately concluded in hegemony due to the Dinosaur National Monument and Echo Park compromise between the Sierra Club and the Bureau of Reclamation. The Bureau effectively absorbed the environmentalist opposition through an agreement to erect an even taller dam, saving Dinosaur Monument and Echo Park, while submerging the grandeur of the ancient striated canyon walls and verdant secrets of Glen Canyon. According to the Hegelian dialectic, humanity makes progress by lurching forward from one great extreme to another as it attempts to overcompensate for a previous mistake, requiring three moves to find balance within an issue (Little). The 17th Century German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel’s concept of progress is elucidated in the patriarchal era of utilitarian statehood reaping natural systems of their life-giving resources, extensively eradicating biodiversity, and transforming the landscape. Historically, the mythological progression of humanity has contained participation in a feminine worship of the natural world, which transitioned to a belief system composed of masculine domination, and blossomed in the post-modern world as an opportunity for humankind to enter into an integrated masculine and feminine perspective as individuals, a species, and members of the land organism. “History is the process whereby the spirit discovers itself and its own concept,” pontificated Hegel (62), asserting the notion that the journey humanity has undertaken by attempting to conquer nature, is in actuality furthering evolution toward a biocentric modality of living. The environmental movement sprang from the deep wounds inflicted along the treadmill of high-modernism; a new pattern of human-nature relations Bogart 8

emerges from environmentalist contestation of Glen Canyon Dam. Philosophical insight from great naturalists of the late 19th and 20th centuries fostered the germination of a new mythology within the dark recesses of uncontested biotic degrading ideology. The renowned conservational biologist Aldo Leopold recognized beauty within the landscape as a force able to alter the psychology of the observer by “building receptivity into the still unlovely human mind” (Sketches Here and There, 176). Human beings have the capacity for deep transformation resulting from evolutionary entanglement with nature. As a young forester, freshly bestowed with a master of forestry degree from Yale’s new utilitarian Forest School in 1909, Leopold roamed the dry technicolored mountains, deserts, and plateaus of America’s Southwest, surveying the land for resource extraction, development, and utilization in the name of the imperial high-modernist state. His exploration revealed to him the incomprehensible splendor of a wolf diminishing as the animal died from the pull of his trigger. It wasn’t until reflecting upon the experience four decades thereafter was he able to see beyond the waning glow within the wolf’s eye and into the subsequent death of the deer, the flora, and the soul of the mountain (Leopold, Round River, 137-139). The rippling effects of the dying wolf throughout the ecosystem procured a profound impact on Leopold’s happiness and psyche, leading him to the conclusion that it is an evolutionary biological function of humankind to have an aesthetic, emotional, and spiritual connection to nature. Without the recognition of aesthetics and a receptive relationship to uninhibited nature, humanity becomes malnourished within their spirit; this discord manifests in the physical world as the loss of flora, and fauna, degradation of the land, and degradation of the true inner wildness of humankind. If societal values have a fundamental influence on the structure and functioning of natural systems, the deterioration of the Earth’s ecosystems through high-modernist ideology is, in fact, a natural evolutionary occurrence. The Age of Bogart 9

Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and industrialization corrupted humanity’s moral fibers, weaving them into a synthetic fabric of materialistic societal force. “...Nature’s object in making animals and plants might possibly be first of all happiness of each one of them, not the creation of all for the happiness of one,” eloquently stated John Muir, providing a contrasting perspective to the prominent anthropocentric lens (138). The notion that land, sea, glacial, and biotic processes hold significant meaning and merit in and of themselves can be perceived as a revolutionary idea in comparison to over a century’s worth of ideology promoting individual ownership of the natural world. Along the course of delving into the farthest reaches of estrangement from their natural selves, human beings embarked on an evolutionary journey toward an intimate symbiotic relationship with nature. Leopold describes a shift in human values from that of domination to one of integrated creation with the universe, “In short, a land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it” (Sketches Here and There, 204). As determined by Newtonian laws of physics, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; through tireless aggression and anthropocentrism inflicted upon the natural world, the Earth reacts by asserting its oppositional force of ecological harmony upon the human. Modern society intimately knows the experience of acting upon the Earth’s processes for individualistic profit; nature responds by acting upon society, ergo, to harness the creative transformational energy generated, humanity must not only recognize this process but act within it. By pursuing the polarity of biocentricity, humanity can engage in synergistic metamorphosis with the natural world. It is the “marriage of the soul with nature that makes the intellect fruitful,” stated Thoreau (413), stressing the importance of connecting physically as well as spiritually to the Earth’s wild places to evoke propitious conditions for evolution. Bogart 10

Presently, the Colorado River is at best a trickle of agricultural runoff, fulfilling the high-modernist dream of keeping her waters from reaching her ultimate destiny, the sea (USGS). When fresh water meets the ocean a coalescence of magical proportions occurs; the nutrient and mineral-laden water of the river mixes with the salt water of the sea, creating a perfect solution for an abundant diversity of life (Postel, “Sacred Reunion”). 15 major dams along the Colorado and hundreds more built upon its tributaries repress the previously two-mile wide river delta. The once thriving wetland and riparian forest spanned two million acres of one of the most biodiverse habitats in North America, supporting numerous species of wildlife, including an incredibly rich fishery of Gulf Covina, totoaba, brown and blue shrimp, and the highly endangered vaquita, the world’s smallest porpoise. Jaguars prowled under the cover of cottonwood, willow, and mesquite (Howard; Harbison). The air was thick with hundreds of species of bird vocalizations, dampened only by the lush vegetation nourished by the delta’s extraordinarily fertile soil (Howard; Postel, “Sacred Reunion”). The “people of the river,” the Cucapa, were a thriving indigenous tribe of the delta, living in harmony with the ebb and flow of the Colorado, flourishing 400 years ago in populations as high as 5,000. Due to the gravely degenerated ecosystem of the Colorado Delta, and having to relocate to the higher ground of El Mayor because of the U.S.’s intentional releasing of floodwaters from reservoirs during the 1980’s, the 300 remaining Cucapa struggle to keep their culture alive (Postel, “Grabbing the Colorado”). The salt flats and sere river channels of the delta are unrecognizable to Aldo Leopold’s fantastical “milk and honey” oasis, thriving less than a century ago (qtd. Davis 2). Thrust between walls of ancient rock, high-modernist dams restrict the flow of Earth’s mighty rivers, causing increased salinity of the water and silt to be caught behind the dams’ concrete walls. The monolithic monstrosities are rapidly becoming obsolete; water resource officials say dam reservoirs are drastically shrinking, never to be filled to Bogart 11

capacity again due to climate change and high water demands from a booming desert population. Current water levels at Lake Powell have dropped by 130 feet, Lake Mead by 150, and 10% of the annual Colorado flow, nearly 500 billion gallons, is lost each year from evaporation alone (Zielinski; “Lake Mead Water Level”; Finley). The depletion of reservoir water isn’t the only facet of impending dam failure; according to geologists and the Bureau of Reclamation, a century’s worth of silt build up from high mountain erosion will eventually completely fill the reservoirs (Wehr 22). As the dams fail to produce hydroelectric power or supply clean water, the imperialist monuments lose their economic worth. The state’s narrow vision of unsustainable proportions is coming back to haunt its citizens whose 30 million population has far surpassed the environment’s carrying capacity and continues to grow. There is hope in the resurrection of harmony, natural abundance, and ecological wellbeing; the hope lies within the ecosystem’s ability to heal itself. Eventually, natural processes will reclaim the rivers and intrinsically reclaim the malnourished psyche of the human mind. As an amendment to the 1944 U.S.-Mexico Water Treaty, Minute 319 was a historical bi-national agreement to allocate a small volume flow to the Colorado River Delta over the course of 2014 to 2017 (USGS). The engineered pulse flow sent one percent of the Colorado’s total annual flow to the delta in an attempt to mimic the river’s natural spring runoff and begin restoration of the wetlands and critical habitats. The pulse flow was only five percent of the magnitude and 10-15 percent the duration of a seasonal peak flow typical before the onslaught of dams; ergo, it was strategically choreographed to produce the “highest ecological benefit possible” (USGS; Postel, “Sacred Reunion”). The flow was far too small to influence sediment movement within the river channel, nevertheless, the southern portion of the delta where the water flowed over land experienced a resurgence of greenery. Even the northern portion beyond the reach of the flowing water was observed to Bogart 12

have an increase in aquifer levels, resulting in the proliferation of vegetation able to utilize the shallower water table. An insurgence of biotic life permeated the land where the minute restored waters flowed; migratory birds, warblers, sparrows, woodpeckers, ash-throated flycatchers, pheasants, and herons can all be observed chirping, dipping, and diving in the ecologically reclaimed habitat. Sequentially, larger predators recoup their lost homes; raptors soar under the hot southern sun, rattlesnakes slither after small rodents seeking sanctuary in the 8-foot tall cattails, and the silent footsteps of coyotes are imprinted in the moistened riverbank (Howard). It remains unclear how the effect of the small series of pulse flows will have on the long-term health of the Colorado Delta; however, it is apparent nature contains the superlative quality of self-renewal. As Leopold advocated: A land ethic, then, reflects the existence of an ecological conscience, and this in turn reflects a conviction of individual responsibility for the health of the land. Health is the capacity for self renewal. Conservation is our effort to understand and preserve this capacity (Round River, 258). Within this definition, conservation abandons the static attempts of loosely defined “stability” and “integrity” within an ecosystem, but encompasses a broader view of land management by integrating the ethical values with the stochastic harmony of the biotic community. The flux of nature permeates the investigation of a new mythology while reconciling the needs of society. Abandoning the treadmill of progress requires de-industrialization and other massive economic and political changes as well as a shift in society’s philosophy concerning their role in the universe. Nature is chaotic; it’s dynamic and unpredictable. Disturbances are normal occurrences, rarely is there a point of homeostasis without the disruption of wind, fire, and flood. Therefore, nature is continuously in a state of flux; the focal point of balance is always changing and adjusting as within the varying scales of Bogart 13

natural patterning. Contemporary conservation and preservation ethic attempts to hold nature in static balance, removing the unforeseeable, dampening the chaos to keep the environment within the stipulations humanity deems to be of worth. MIT meteorologist professor Edward Lorenz’s 1961 discovery of Chaos Theory introduced the profound idea of what appears to be irregular and unpredictable behavior giving rise to order, stability, and sometimes predictability. In complex systems, a very small input can have tremendous unexpected consequences (Dizikes). By controlling the flow of major waterways, humans interfere with a host of salient ecological variables that provide fluid balance within fluctuating systems. Humanity’s attempts to stabilize the process ultimately leads to an inability for the ecological network to harmoniously regulate itself. Ergo, the subtle and mystical essence of life returns with the dissolution of masculine control over nature’s feminine processes, allowing for dynamic equilibrium to arise within the land organism. The water one touches when dipping their fingers in the placidity of Lake Powell transcends the barricade of Glen Canyon Dam, beyond that of Boulder, beyond the next dam, and the next. Connected by a succession of water molecules curving across 1,450 miles of turbulent rapids, arid desert, and sedimentary rock canyons of Mauve Limestone and Bright Angel Shale until miraculously, a rivulet of the Colorado reaches the Sea of Cortez. You are connected to everything here: the beauty, the turmoil, prolific life, and impending death. Imprinted in the hieroglyphic shimmers of the Colorado is the tale of the river, of the Earth, and the journey of time itself. As global temperatures rise and the water slowly runs dry, it is time to transition into an evolved mythology. A story where humanity humbly turns to the destruction of themselves, acknowledges the pain and suffering of the biotic community and acts with the insight of the primordial, the scientific understanding of the present, and the integrated broad view of the future. The answers to our most profound ecological problems hum in the great archive of the Grand Canyon, an ancient ocean’s Bogart 14

skeleton excavated by the Colorado’s erosive journey to the sea. An ecological ethic of higher evolutionary proportions may arise when humanity yields to the unpredictable soft wisdom of water, where human beings, like the hard rock of canyon walls, can be shaped by the spontaneous organization of nature. Bogart 15

Works Cited Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth. New York, Anchor Books, 1991, pp. 165-173. Dizikes, Peter. “When the Butterfly Effect Took Flight”. MIT Technology Review, 22 February 2011, www.technologyreview.com/s/422809/when-the-butterfly-effect-took-flight. Accessed 9 August 2018. Davis, Wade. River Notes: A Natural and Human History of the Colorado. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2009, pp. 2-41. Bogart 16 “A River Ran Through It and Brought Life, At Least for a While”. USGS: Science for a Changing World, 24 October 2016, www.usgs.gov/news/a-river-ran-through-it-and-brought- life-least-a-while. Accessed 2 August 2018. Beedham, Christopher. Language and Meaning: The Structural Creation of Reality, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005, pp. 18. Finley, Bruce. “West’s Water Reservoir Managers Face Big Losses From Evaporation”. Denver Post, 29 December 2015, www.denverpost.com/2015/12/29/wests-water- reservoir-managers-face-big-losses-from-evaporation. Accessed 9 August 2018. Guthrie, Woody. Grand Coulee Dam. Woody Guthrie Publications, 1941, woodyguthrie.org/Lyrics/Grand_Coulee_Dam.htm. Accessed 10 August 2018. Harbison, Martha. “Update to U.S.-Mexico Water Treaty Is a Huge Win for Conservation”. Audubon in Action, Audubon, 10 October 2017, www.audubon.org/news/update-us- mexico-water-treaty-huge-win-conservation. Accessed 8 August 2018. Howard, Brian Clark. “Saving the Colorado River Delta, One Habitat at a Time.” National Geographic, 15 December 2014, news.nationalgeographic.com/news/special-features/2014/12/141216-colorado- river-delta-restoration-water-drought-environment. Accessed 8 August 2018. Hegel, Georg. Lectures on the Philosophy of World History. Translated by H. B. Nisbet, Cambridge University Press, 1975, pp. 62. “Lake Mead Water Level”. Lakes Online, 8 August 2018, mead.uslakes.info/level.asp. Accessed 8 August 2018. Little, Daniel. “Philosophy of History”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2017 Edition, 13 October2016, www.plato.stanford.edu/entries/history/#HegHis. Accessed 19 July 2018. Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York, 1949, pp. 176-204. --A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River. Oxford University Press, New York, 1966, pp. 137-258. Marcuse, Herbert. Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory. 2nd Edition, Routledge, London and New York, 2000, pp. 342. Muir, John. A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1916, pp. 138. Postel, Sarah. “A Sacred Reunion: The Colorado River Returns to the Sea.” Wildlife, National Geographic, 19 May 2014, blog.nationalgeographic.org/2014/05/19/a-sacred- reunion-the-colorado-river-returns-to-the-sea. Accessed 7 August 2018. --“Grabbing the Colorado From the ‘People of the River’”. Wildlife, National Geographic, 19 December 2012, blog.nationalgeographic.org/2012/12/19/grabbing-the-colorado-from-the-people- of-the-river. Accessed 1 August 2018. Thoreau, Henry David. The Writings of Henry David Thoreau. Edited by B. Torrey, Houghton Mifflin and Company, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1906, pp. 413. Wehr, Kevin. America’s Fight Over Water: The Environmental and Political Effects of Large

Scale Water Systems. New York, Routledge, 2004, pp. 3-184. Zielinski, Sarah. “The Colorado River Runs Dry”. Smithsonian Magazine, October 2010, www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-colorado-river-runs-dry-61427169. Accessed 1 August 2018. Bogart 17